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The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers.

The 7 layers are as follows:


Layer 1- broadcast technologies (hub, access point)


Layer 2- switch, NIC (hard coded mac address)


Layer 3- router (anything that uses Ipv4 or ipv6)


Layer 4- ports for use with applications to access the network from within an operating system, Port numbers are a way of directing packets to specific applications


Layer 5- maintains connections between hosts


Layer 6- ensures common formatting of packets so they can be recognised by any device


Layer 7- software applications e.g. web browsers